|All about Diamonds||Diamond & Gemstone Cuts||Diamond & Gemstone Settings|
|Gemstones & Birthstones||Precious Metals||Defining Eras in Estate Jewelry|
|Men: How to buy jewelry for a woman|
|The way a diamond was cut and polished, and to what proportions and symmetry, are considered of utmost importance to value, since these factors will determine the life, brilliance and dispersion of the diamond. If these cutting factors were to fall below standard, the appearance of the diamond could be adversely affected.|
The weight or size of a diamond is measured in carats.
A carat is 0.2 grams, and there are 100 points (or 200 milligrams) per carat.
A point is a hundredth of a carat or 0.002 gram.
View the expanded CARAT to MILLIMETER chart HERE
In order to grade the clarity of a diamond, it is necessary to observe the number and nature of any internal characteristics in the stone as well as their size and position. This analysis is carried out using a scope and a loupe 10x under the experienced eye of a trained gemologist.
A diamond is said to be "Internally Flawless" when it presents no internal
defects under 10x magnification.
Other colors occur in diamonds, including brown, orange, pink, blue, etc. The most intense of these shades are determined as "Fancy" colors.
While color range titles may vary between international gemological organizations, color identification standards remain the same.
Irradiated diamonds are diamonds that have been exposed to radiation. This changes the diamond's color (as the radiation changes the crystalline structure of the diamond). The change in the diamond is permanent. Older radiation treatments involving exposing the stone to radium; while newer treatments bombard the stone with atomic particles in a cyclotron (which accelerated protons, neutrons, or alpha-partices to high speeds). The irradiated stones take on a greenish or an aquamarine hue.
An Inclusion is a particle of foreign matter contained within a mineral. Inclusions can be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Many inclusions decrease the value of a stone, but some, like rutile forming asterisms in star sapphires and needles in rutilated quartz and tourmalinated quartz, are prized.
Fluorescence: Under UV (ultra-violet) lighting, (a/k/a black light)
a diamond with fluorescence will glow blue, (or occasionally even yellow, or
green). Forgotten what black lights are? Picture a darkened disco or
dance club where white clothing glowed blue under these lights.
A commonly accepted rule of thumb about fluorescence in diamonds and its effect on Value tells us that:
· The higher (colorless) diamond grades, D through F, for example, will be adversely effected by fluorescence. They may appear slightly milky or oily.
· The middle color grades, G through I, appear to have some tolerance for fluorescence. Mild to moderate amounts of fluorescence can be acceptable. However it is advisable to shy away from strong fluorescence with these color grades. Personal taste in the appearance of your diamond is suggested here.
· The lower color grades, J through M, can actually have their appearance improved by fluorescence. The blue of the fluorescent light, and the yellow tint from the diamond will have a tendency to cancel each other out, allowing the diamond to look whiter.
The value of diamond is usually not negatively effected by faint fluorescence.
Moissanite is a very hard mineral that was discovered by Dr. Ferdinand Henri Moissan (1852-1907), a French chemist and Nobel Prize winner (Moissan did work on synthesizing diamonds and discovered carborundum in 1891). He found tiny amounts of Moissanite in the iron meteorite that was found at Diablo Canyon (also called Meteor Crater) in Arizona, USA. Moissanite ranges in color from colorless to blue to green to yellow. Its chemical makeup is Silicon Carbide (SiC); it is also called Carborundum. Moisannite crystals are transparent to translucent. Moissanite has a hardness of 9.25 (this is almost as hard as diamond) and a specific gravity of 3.1 - 3.2. Laboratory-grown Moissanite is sold as a gemstone and resembles diamonds. Jewelers and Gemologists routinely test for Moissanite and Cubic Zirconia when evaluating authenticity of diamond jewelry.
Speaking of diamonds...what the heck is a diamond tennis bracelet? A tennis bracelet is a simple, flexible, in-line diamond bracelet. The term tennis bracelet was first used in the summer of 1987 when the popular tennis player Chrissie Evert dropped a diamond bracelet during a match at the US Open Tennis Tournament. She had to stop the match until she found her bracelet. Since then, that particular style of bracelet has been called a tennis bracelet.
Learn MORE about Diamonds:
Common gemstone cuts include the brilliant cut, old European cut, emerald cut, rose cut, step cut, pendelique cut, mixed cuts, and fantasy cuts, such as a heart cut.
Baton A baton is a stone that is cut in a long, thin rectangular shape. A baton is larger than a baguette.
Baguette A gemstone, often a diamond, cut in a narrow rectangular shape. Small diamonds cut this way are often used as accents. A tapered baguette has one short end narrower than the opposie end, forming a trapezoid.
Brilliant cut stones have 56 facets, 32 facets are above the girdle, 24 are below. Most modern-day diamonds are brilliant cut, since it maximizes the amount of reflected light from the stone (its natural fire). The brilliant cut was introduced in the 1600's.
Briolette (or drop cut) is a pear-shaped cut gemstone with triangular facets on top.
Cabochon A stone with a rounded surface, rather than with facets. This style is commonly used with opaque to translucent stones such as opal, moonstone, jade and turquoise. Less expensive transparent stones such as amethyst and garnet, are also sometimes fashioned as cabochons. A garnet cabochon is also referred to as a carbuncle.
Calibre-cut stones are small stones that are cut into special shapes that are meant for use in commonly-used designs. These stones usually have step-cut facets and are generally rectangular shaped.
Criscut - The CrisCut is a patented and trademarked design by Christoper Slowinski of Christopher Designs. The sophisticated cutting pattern was developed with the aid of the computer and the result is a unique and brilliant redesign of the emerald step cut. The most notable features are the triangle facets used throughout the 77 facet design, producing unusual scintillation and brilliance. Most of these diamonds are set in finished jewelry by Christopher Designs, so loose stone availability is extremely limited.
Emerald cut stones have a girdle that is rectangular with truncated corners. Emerald cuts are frequently used on emeralds and diamonds.
European Cut The style of diamond cutting popular from approximately 1890 to the 1930s. Unlike the old mine cut preceeding it, the European cut has a round girdle (perimeter) made possible by the introduction of the power bruting machine (Bruting is the term for shaping the girdle of a diamond, the first step in the cutting process). The European cut can be distinguished by the size of the table (the top, flat facet) in relation to the diameter of the stone. In a European cut, the table is smaller in relation to the diameter of the stone. Also, the culet (the bottom facet, is often large, often appearing to create a hole at the bottom of the diamond, when viewed from the top, since the large culet lets light escape instead of reflecting back to the viewer.
Fancy cut stones are cut in unusual ways. Some fancy cuts include the heart, fan, rivoli, trapezium, cathedral window, half-moon (lunette), kite, and triangle.
Fantasy cut is a new way of faceting stones which uses freeform angles - virtually anything goes.
Full cut stone is a gemstone with 58 facets.
Inlay is a piece of material (often stone or glass) that is partially embedded in another material (usually metal) such that the two materials make a level surface.
Keystone is a stone cut the shape of a keystone in an arch. Keystones are usually step cut.
King cut is a modification of the brilliant cut which is used for large diamonds. This cut has 86 facets.
Marquise cut stones have a shape like an oval with two pointed ends. Note that the correct pronunciation is "Mar-KEYS", not "Mar-KEY" which is commonly heard
Melee is a small diamond, under .20 carat.
Mixed cut is one in which the style of the facets above and below the girdle are different. A standard mixed cut is brilliant cut above and step cut below.
Pear cut gemstones (also called a drop cut) is teardrop shaped. This type of cut is used for pendants, drop earrings, rings, and other pieces of jewelry.
Pendelique cut in one that is lozenge shaped. This cut is frequently used for flawed stones. Pendelique cut stones are often used as pendants.
Princess cut is a square-cut stone. This fancy cut is relatively new and is also known as a Quadrillion or Squarillion cut.
Rose cut (also called the rosette cut) for diamonds was invented in the 17th century and it was used continued until the 18th century. The rose cut has a flat base and triangular facets (usually 24). This cut has little wastage of stone, but is not nearly as reflective as the brilliant cut, which was invented later.
Solitaire is a ring set with a single stone, usually a diamond.
Step cut is generally used for colored stones. This cut is rectangular to square, and has many facets parallel to the edges of the stone.
A foilback (or foiled stone) is a stone which has a metallic foil backing; this thin metallic backing is frequently composed of mercury and tin. Silver-colored, gold-colored, or other-colored foil was applied to the back of a stone to make the stone more reflective. Before scintillating cuts (like the brilliant cut) were invented, even precious stones were foiled to enhance their sparkle. Moisture can damage foil and make the stone "dead," losing its brilliance. Stones are rarely foiled any more.
ABOUT those Clarity Enhanced Diamonds:
Here's one problem: Clarity enhanced or otherwise treated diamonds cannot take direct high heat, such as that generated by a jewelers torch, therefore you MUST be certain to tell your jeweler before permitting him to work on your ring to resize it, retip prongs, replace stones, or do similar work on your jewelry. Clarity enhancements are not readily visible to the naked eye, so make sure to alert your jeweler in writing, and make sure the words "clarity enhanced diamond" appears on both copies of your work order, yours and theirs, so that the bench jeweler knows. Your diamond MUST first be removed from the setting before any work can be done, and then it must be re-mounted once the repair work is complete. That can be an expensive process. Additionally, virtually every jeweler in America has a sign in their showroom advising customers that they are not responsible for damage to fracture filled, enhanced or treated stones. In other words, if the diamond is accidentally reduced to a cinder, or it explodes when subjected to heat, you're likely to be out the entire purchase price.
HOW TO RECOGNIZE OLDER DIAMOND CUTS
Old Mine Cut & Old European Cut Diamonds
Old Mine Cut = (There has always been argument about the origin of the name, some say it is derived from the Old-Mines from India, others say it's name comes from the Old-Mines in Brazil). An Old-Mine-Cut is one of the oldest cutting styles, is somewhat square in shape, has a small table, no point on the culet and the culet could be off center. That is to say that the diamond generally has the same shape as the original crystalline structure of the diamond when it was in the rough, (Rather square in appearance)
Late Transitional Old Mine Cut = The same as above but with some rounding of the girdle, small table, no point on the culet and it may or may not be centered, (Getting a bit rounder, but still somewhat square)
An old European cut diamond is an old style of faceting a diamond in a round shape, hand worked, in a less than perfect fashion. This style enabled the diamonds 58 facets to show broader reflective bands of brilliance returning back up through the top portion of the diamond (the table facet). Old European cut diamonds continued the characteristic of the old cuts with their open culet and higher crown. It is similar to the old mine cut, but is round rather than squarish and has 58 facets.
While being cut with less than exacting proportions, these diamonds have a beauty and magic of their own which give them a desirable, distinct beauty just as the bygone era in which they were fashioned. This cutting style began to disappear around the turn of the century.
Old European cut diamonds often have greater carat weight than modern brilliant cut diamonds. For example; a 7mm round brilliant is 1.25ct but in an Old European Cut it would be more like a 1.4 - 1.55ct stone. An 8mm round brilliant cut diamond is 2ct but an 8mm Old European Cut diamond may weigh anywhere between 2.3cts to 2.5cts!
There are actually six (6) different periods between early Old-Mine-Cut diamonds and the Modern-Brilliant-Cut diamonds, by understanding these gradual transitions of diamond cutting over a 100 year period, one can more accurately assign a proper circa to the item of jewelry based on the diamonds in the item and their cutting style.
Early Transitional Old European Cut = Almost a round girdle but not perfectly round at this point, small table, no point on the culet and almost centered. That is to say that this diamond has all the cutting characteristic of an Old European Cut Diamond, except that it is not fully round, as an Old European Cut should be. The girdle almost round, but it shows a bit of the square-shape that is normally associated with an Old Mine Cut Diamond. Thus its classification is an Early Transitional- Old European Cut, a period of cutting and time when diamond cutting was making the transition from Old Mine Cut to Old European Cut. ("Almost Round, but not actually round")
Old European Cut = Round in shape, small table, no point on the culet and it should be relatively centered. (At last the Diamond is Round)
Late Transitional Old European Cut = A round girdle, the table is getting wider, and the culet may have a point or almost a point and be centered. The transition of cutting is approaching the modern brilliant cut, but the diamond does not have the mathematical proportions to be classified as a modern brilliant cut, a period of cutting and time when diamond cutting was making the transition from Old European Cut to an Modern Brilliant Cut. (Round, and the table is still a bit small)
Modern Brilliant Cut = A round girdle, the depth is 57.0 to 63,0%, the table is a 53.0 to 66.0 % of the width, the pavilion depth is 41.5 to 45.5%, the crown height should be 11.0 to 16.2% of the overall depth, and the crown angle is 30.0 to 35.0 degrees. There should be a good point on the girdle and it should be centered. (Gemological Cutting Perfection)
Cushion Cut is a style of diamond cutting popular before 1890 or so, it features a cushion shaped outline, rather than the round outline of the modern cut and old European cuts, and has a different facet arrangement.
Single-Cut Diamonds have the same shape as full-cut diamonds, but generally have 1/2 the amount of facets as a full-cut diamond.
Rose-Cut Diamonds are a bit like a pie-pan flipped up side down in their shape, that is to say that there are facets on the top of the stone, but they are flat on the back side (See the side view's below).
A setting is a method of securing a stone (or other ornament) in a
piece of jewelry (or other object). There are many different types of settings,
including the collet (a strip of metal surrounding the stone), the claw setting
(in which prongs of metal hold the stone in place), the cut-down setting (metal
is worked around the edge of the gem, reinforced with metal ridges), pavé-set
stones (stones set close together, showing no metal between them), millegrain
(the stone is secured by small beads [grains] of metal), gipsy setting (with
a recessed stone), and many other types (including combinations of the above-mentioned
methods). Some settings are closed (there is metal behind the stone), while
others are open (there is no metal behind the stone), letting light shine through
Bezel Setting A method of setting gemstones in which the stone is held in the mounting by a narrow band of metal surrounding the girdle (outside perimeter) of the stone. The bezel is the part of a cut stone that protrudes above the edge of a setting. The bezel is also known as the crown.
Cathedral Setting A cathedral ring setting is a simple band that arches when seen from the side (like the arches of a cathedral).
Channel set A gem setting technique in which a number of square or rectangular stones are set side by side in a grooved channel. Unlike most setting methods, the stones are not secured individually, so there is no metal visible between the stones.Channel set jewels rest in that metal channel, held in only by a slight rim which runs along the edges of the channel.
Châton setting (also called coronet or arcade setting) is one in which the stone is held in by many metal claws around a metal ring.
Closed setting is one in which the back of the stone is not exposed (the metal is not cut away behind the stone).
Collet setting is a very early method of setting gemstones. A collet is a thin, round band of metal that goes all around the stone. One edge of the metal is crimped over the edges of the stone and the other edge is soldered to the metal of the jewelry, holding the stone in place. This closed setting sometimes also had metal claws along the outside to hold the stone even more securely (the claws were not used much after the 1200's and 1300's
Gipsy (also spelled Gypsy) Setting is a recessed setting in which the stone is sunk into the metal. There are often engraved designs around the stone (especially star patterns). This type of setting was developed in the late 1800's and was often used for rings. The gipsy setting is also known as the "star setting."
Pave' (pah-VAY) a gem setting technique in which the stones are set low and very closely spaced, so that the surface appears to be paved with gemstones. Most commonly seen with diamonds, but may be used with any stone. In better pieces, claw settings are used; in less expensive pieces, the stones are simply glued in.
Micro-pave' - (Micro-pah-VAY) - A method of setting small diamonds, which are known as diamond melee. Micro-pave' mountings frquently come from India and China. They use what is known as a "down and dirty" style, for very fast, very cheap, diamond setting. Micro-pave' mountings are NOT recommended, because the the micro-pave' style of diamond setting does not include cleaning ports beneath the diamonds. (the small holes you normally see on the under-side of the ring, beneath each gemstone.) Instead, with the micro-pave setting method, diamonds are prong-set on top of a solid metal shank, which allows dirt, oil, lotion, etc. to continually build up beneath the diamonds. There is no way to clean that dirt out. Your diamonds will look perpetually cloudy. There's also another down-side. If a jeweler's work is ever needed on the ring, (repronging, resizing, replacing a stone, etc.) This one could turn out to be very expensive for you. Diamonds MUST be completely clean before any work can be performed anywhere near them, or the touch of the jewelers torch will actually BURN your diamonds. So....the jeweler would either have to unmount ALL of the diamonds, perform the repair work and then RE-MOUNT each stone, OR the repair work would have to be done by laser, both of which procedures are significently more expensive. Either way, in the long run, that pretty little micro-pave' setting is going to cost you money you wouldn't have had to spend had you opted for a quality setting.
Roman Arch- A ring style which permits a half-set diamond band to have the diamonds facing up at all times. The shape is a gently rounded half circle with the flat part on the bottom of the ring. This flat bottom Roman Arch style is popular with owners of very large, top-heavy diamond rings, since it keeps the spectactular diamond upright.
Tiffany Setting .The Tiffany setting is a ring with a high, six-pronged solitaire diamond on a simple circular band. This design was introduced by Tiffany & Co. in 1886
A gemstone (also called a precious stone) is a mineral that is valuable, rare and often beautiful. A few organic materials, like amber, coral and pearls are also considered gemstones.Click on the blue links below if you'd like to view more detailed information about these gemstones.
Alexandrite Discovered in 1830 in Russia, and
named after Czar Alexander II of who was then Crown Prince of Russia, Alexandrite
is a form of the mineral chrysoberyl noted for its color change in different
forms of light. In sunlight alexandrite looks blue-green, but in indoor (tungsten)
light it the same stone changes to reddish-purple. Natural alexandrite with
good color is very expensive today, as very little is still being mined, and
there are many synthetics on the market. Synthetic color-change sapphire is
also sometimes mistaken forAlexandrite.
Amethyst A form of quartz in shades of purple ranging from light lavender to deep, intense purple with subtle flashes of red.
Aquamarine Aquamarine is a transparent, light blue or sea-green stone that is porous. Today, blue aquamarines are more highly valued, but this was not true in the past, when sea-green stones were prized. Heat-treatment turns greenish stones bluer. The best aquamarines come from Brazil. Large aquamarines are relatively common. Aquamarines are usually faceted but when they are cabochon cut, a cat's eye effect or asterism may appear. Aquamarines belong to the beryl family of stones.
Citrine A variety of quartz, citrine occurs in a color range ranging from light yellow to a brilliant orange that may be confused with fine imperial topaz.
Diamonds are a form of crystalline carbon, and are prized because they are exceptionally hard and durable, have high refractivity and brilliance, and because really fine diamonds are rare. Today diamonds are valued based on the "4 C's" of color, cut, clarity and carat size. Many diamond imitations have appeared over the years, with the most common today being the ubiquitous cubic zirconia which appears similar to a diamond to the uninitiated, but can be readily distinguished by a diamond tester which measures thermal inertia. Trained individuals, despite claims of cubic zirconia manufacturers, also have little trouble distinguishing a genuine diamond when it is examined under at least 10 power magnification.
Emerald A gemstone of the beryl family, fine emeralds are among the most valuable gemstones. Unlike most gemstones, flaws (called inclusions by gemologists )are quite common in emeralds, so they lower the value much less than with other precious stones such a diamonds. The most highly prized emeralds are mined in Columbia. A valuable emerald will be a bright, vividly colored green. Those with a slight blue cast to the bright green are actually the most valuable color. Many emeralds seen in jewelry are of relatively low quality. They are often dyed or oiled to improve the color and minimize flaws. If an emerald appears to be very fine, it may actually be a synthetic. There are several types of synthetic emeralds on the market Synthetic emeralds (developed by Carroll Chatham in the 1930's) have fewer imperfections, and some are very hard to distinguish from natural emeralds, even for a trained gemologist.
Opals are semi-precious stones that are luminous and iridescent, frequently with inclusions of many colors ("fire"). Opal is a mineral composed of noncrystalline (amorphous) silica (and some water) and is a species of quartz. There are three major types of opals: common opal, opalescent precious opal (white or black, with a rainbow-like iridescence caused by tiny crystals of cristobalite), and fire opal (a milky stone that is firey orange to red in color with no opalescence). Contra luz opals are transparent opals that show a brilliant play of iridescence only when light shines through the stone. Many opals have a high water content - they can dry out and crack if they are not cared for well (opals should be stored in damp cotton wool).
Black opals are a valuable type of precious opals with a dark ground color. They are luminous, iridescent, and frequently have inclusions of many colors ("fire"). Fire opals are a type of opal that is firey orange to red in color (but have no opalescence). These opals are rarely transparent - they are usually milky.
Pearls - A pearl is a natural gemstone formed when an oyster is irritated by a substance that gets into its shell. If the irritation is a naturally occuring grain of sand, the resulting pearl is known as an Oriental pearl.The mollusk secretes nacre, a lustrous substance that coats the intruding object. As thousands of layers of nacre coat the intruder, a pearl is formed; this process takes up to seven or eight years (an oyster's useful life span). The most valuable pearls are perfectly symmetrical, large, naturally produced, and have a shimmering iridescence (called orient luster). Several factors determine a pearls worth. Luster and size are generally considered the two main factors to look for. Luster for example, depends on the fineness and evenness of the layers. The deeper the glow, the more perfect the shape and surface, the more valuable the pearl. Moreover, if you can see a reflection of your face clearly by gazing into the pearl, that is considered a high quality luster. The foggier the reflection, the less valuable the pearl. Size has to do with both the age of the oyster that created the pearl (the more mature oysters produce larger pearls), and the location in which the pearl was cultured. (The South Sea waters of Australia tend to produce the larger pearls.)
Cultured Pearl - If the pearl is produced by surgically injecting a mother-of-pearl or mussel shell bead, then a cultured pearl is formed. After 5-7 years, the oysters are retrieved and the pearls are harvested. This method of "manufacturing" pearls was invented in 1893 by Kokichi Mikimoto. Top quality natural and cultured pearls are identical to the naked eye in terms of appearance and quality. Only under an X-ray machine can a trained eye discern any difference. Cultured pearls tend to have a larger core or nucleus. But, in all other respects, they are identical. The best cultured pearls are those that come from an oyster that dies after the pearl is removed. Oysters that do not die after the pearl has been extracted produce what are referred to as “Biwa” pearls. Biwa pearls may fetch a lower price than the impending death variety. Pearls come in many colors. The most popular colors are whites, creams, and pinks, however silver, black, and gold are also very desirable. Among cultured pearls, Akoya pearls from Japan are among the most lustrous. A good quality necklace of 40 Akoya pearls measuring 7mm in diameter sells for about $1,500, while a super- high quality strand sells for about $4,500. The South Sea pearls of Australia, Myanmar, and Indonesia are rarer and larger, with diameters of 10 to 20mm, and are more costly, even though they tend to be less lustrous. A 16 inch strand of white South Sea pearls may sell for $40,000 to $50,000.
The Black Tahitian pearl is produced by the Black Lipped oyster (Pinctada Margaritafera) which is found in the waters of French Polynesia. Natural Black Tahitian pearls are extremely rare since only one out of about 10,000 oysters contains a pearl. The Black Lipped oyster was nearly harvested to extinction in the early 1900's. These oysters were in high demand primarily for the Mother of Pearl which is part of the oyster shell.The Black Lipped oyster was rescued, and is now raised in sea farms in French Polynesia. These pearls can be very large, since Black Lipped oysters can grow to be as large as 12" across and 10 pounds in weight. Most Black Tahitian pearls are not really black. Colors can be light silver, gray, yellow bronze, green with pink overtone, and peacock, with nearly all colors showing in play-of-color on the surface of the pearl. A 10x lens in the hands of a trained gemologist easily permits identification of imitation pearls. Black Tahitian pearl shapes may be round and semi-round, semi-baroque, ringed or baroque. See also; Care of Pearls.
Seed Pearl refers to tiny, round pearls that are less than 2 mm in diameter and weigh under 1/4 grain.These were commonly strung on horsehair and used in intricately woven jewelry during the early-mid Victorian period. In the late Victorian period seed pearl accents were set into gold jewelry. During the Edwardian period, they were sometimes woven into long fringed necklaces called sautoirs (Soh-TWAH) often having a tassel or pendant at the end, (style was popularized in the Edwardian era because Edward's Queen Alexandra often wore them).
Freshwater Pearl is a pearl produced by a mollusk that inhabits freshwater. Usually these pearls are shaped like an uneven grain of rice or like crisped rice cereal, and are less valuable than oyster pearls. There is also a variety called Tennessee fresh water pearls that taper like a long tooth. Biwa pearls are very good quality freshwater pearls from Lake Biwa in Japan. These irregularly-shaped pearls are smoother and more lustrous than most other freshwater pearls. A pearl that forms attached to the shell is a Blister Pearl. This type of pearl must be cut off the shell, and is therefore hemispherical. A pearl that forms a half dome is a Mabe (pronounced mah-bay) pearl. Blister and Mabe pearls are frequently used for earrings. Pearls which are irregularly shaped rather than round, are referred to as Baroque.
Ruby Rubies are precious stones and a member of the corundum family. Fine rubies of good color can be more valuable than diamonds. Rubies are by definition, red, but can actually range in color from the classic deep red to pink to purple to brown. Rubies are extremely hard, and only diamonds are harder. Laboratory-produced rubies were created in the 1890's and they are difficult to distinguish from natural rubies. They became quite popular in jewelry. Synthetic rubies must be distinguished from natural by sophisticated testing by trained gemologists. A ruby spinel (or spinel ruby) is deep red, transparent spinel (not a ruby).
Sapphire A gemstone of the corundum family, although blue is the color most commonly associated with sapphires, they come in a range of colors from white to orange to green to pink. In fact, if a corundum gemstone is red, it is referred to as a ruby, but any other color, including the light pinkish "rubies" in inexpensive jewelry are properly referred to as sapphires. Sapphires were first synthesized in the 1920's, so it takes an expert to determine if a sapphire is natural. Natural sapphires are sometimes found that exhibit a star effect. These can be quite valuable if the star is centered and well-defined, but in 1967 the synthetic Linde Star Sapphire hit the market, and many star sapphires found today are these synthetics.
Birthstones have their roots in ancient astrology, and there have been many birthstone lists used over the years.
The most common one today is based on a list first publicized by the U.S. jewelry industry in the 1950s.
This list assigns birthstones as follows:
January - Garnet
February - Amethyst
March - Aquamarine
April - Diamond
May - Emerald
June - Pearl or Moonstone
July - Ruby
August - Peridot
September - Sapphire
October - Opal
November - Citrine or Topaz
December - Turquoise or Zircon
Carats and Karats:
What's the difference?
In gemstones, a Carat is a unit of weight, not a unit of size. One carat of a dense (heavy) stone will be smaller than one carat of a lighter stone. For example, a one-carat sapphire will be smaller than a one-carat diamond, because sapphires are heavier than diamonds.
A carat and a metric carat both weigh 200 milligrams.
If you're thinking in terms of pounds and ounces, it takes about 142 carats to make an ounce.
The carob, which you probably already know as a substitute for chocolate, is actually the ancestor of both words.
Carob trees, which have grown in the Mediterranean region since antiquity,
produce small, edible seed pods containing carob beans which are unusually consistent
in size. Since carob beans usually all weigh the same, regardless of when or
where they were harvested, their unique characteristic of consistent weight
led to handy little carob beans being adopted as a unit of weight.
The Greeks were the first documented users of carob beans for weight. By 1500, Latin alchemists, still using carob beans as a basic unit of weight, measured things by the carratus. Carat and karat therefore, are the modern derivatives of carratus. And although they have a common origin and are pronounced the same, carat and karat now have different meanings.
||A Carat is a unit of weight in gemstones. The word Carat is abbreviated as c. or ct. When a piece of jewelry contains several diamonds or other gemstones, the carat amount will be described as total weight. The ring at right, for example, would be described as having .90 carats of diamonds total weight, (9/10ths of a carat) written like so; .90cttw||
||A Karat is a unit for measuring the purity of gold. The term Karat is abbreviated as K. or kt. The higher the number of karats, the higher the proportion of gold, thus only 24-karat gold is 100% pure gold. Jewelry is sometimes marked with the karat weight followed by the initial P. The P stands for "Plumb", meaning "exact". For example; a ring or other jewelry marked 18KP would indicate that the precious metal used to make that piece was exactly 18karat gold, and not 17k, or 19k. The necklace you see pictured at left is 18k gold, so it has a richer color than 14k gold. Gold is soft. Most gold jewelry is 14k, indicating that alloys, in this case silver and copper have been added to give it greater strength. Yellow gold jewelry marked 14k (14 + 14=24) means that half of the precious metal in that piece is pure gold, the remainder is 25% silver and 25% copper.|
GOLD: Gold was first legalized as money as early as 1091 BC in China as an alternative to silk. Gold is still the only universally accepted medium of exchange. Millions of people all over the world contiune to use gold as a hedge against inflation and as a basic form of savings and a reliable store of value during times of economic uncertainty or political upheaval.
Pure gold is called 24 karat. A karat has nothing to do with weight, but instead refers to the quantity of gold contained in a particular item. The measurement uses a base of 24 units. Pure gold is twenty-four twenty-fourths (24/24ths) gold, and is called 24-karat gold. Most gold jewelry however, is in either 18kt, 14kt, or 10kt gold.
Gold that is 14-karat gold is fourteen twenty-fourths (14/24ths) gold and ten twenty-fourths (10/24ths) other metals. The most common gold alloys are 14-karat gold and 18-karat gold. Other alloys, such as 16-karat gold, are sometimes available.
If you have a piece of jewelry which is marked18kt gold, then this means the gold is 18 parts gold and six part of another metal, typically copper, which was added to the gold to enhance its strength. Gold does not oxidize, so a quick rub with a polishing cloth is generally all that is generally necessary to restore the natural lustre to your gold jewelry.
Gold with other metals added to it is referred to as a gold alloy. The most common metals used in gold alloys are silver, copper, nickel, and zinc.
Other countries used a marking system well before the United States. For example, Britain has had a system of hallmarking in place for hundreds of years. It is also common in many European and other countries to mark gold with a three digit number indicating the parts per thousand of gold. Thus gold jewelry is often marked "750" for 750/1000 gold. (Equivalent to US 18K).
COLORS OF GOLD:
In addition to many purities, alloyed gold also comes in many colors.
Variations in the metals alloyed with the gold account for the ability to produce many different hues.
|Color Gold||Alloy Metal(s) Added to the Gold|
|Yellow Gold||Equal parts of silver and copper|
|White Gold was particularly popular from 1900 through the 1930's.||Nickel, zinc, copper, tin and manganese|
Rose gold (a/k/a Pink gold ) was popular in late Victorian times, and again in the 1940s.
| 90% copper and 10% silver
|Green Gold||High proportion of silver or cadmium|
|Blue Gold||Some iron|
|Grey Gold||15-20% iron|
|Here's a custom made shade of gold, called Apricot, specially developed to enhance the beauty of the G.I.A. certified natural apricot colored center diamond in the ring shown at left. The remainder of the ring is white gold.|
Often, less expensive pieces of jewelry will be gold-filled or gold-plated.
Gold Filled: Also called gold overlay, a layer of at least 10-karat gold permanently bonded by heat and pressure to one or more surfaces of a support metal, then rolled or drawn to a prescribed thickness. The karat gold must be at least 1/10 by weight of the total metal content.
Rolled Gold Plate: Material consisting of a layer of plating of 10-karat gold or better which is mechanically bonded to a base metal. The karat gold content may be less than 1/20 but must be properly identified by weight in terms of total metal content.
Karatclad is a trademark for a very thick gold electroplating process; this type of plating is about 14 times thicker than standard electroplating.
Vermeil: Gold at least 15- micro-inches thick, bonded to sterling silver by an electrolytic or mechanical process.
Interesting facts about gold: Gold displays superior electrical conductivity, and extraodinarily high reflective powers, and, because gold is biologically inactive, it is even used in the direct treatment of arthritis and other intractable diseases.
Gold and silver are measured in Troy weight, a system that includes pennyweights,
ounces and pounds.
The ounces and pounds do not equal the Avordupois or customary U.S. system that other common goods are measured in.
Gold is also commonly measured in metric grams.
A pennyweight (abbreviated dwt.) is equal to 1.5552 grams.
24 grains = 1 pennyweight = 1.5552 grams
20 pennyweight = 1 troy ounce = 31.1035 grams
12 ounces = 1 pound troy = 373.24 grams.
PLATINUM : Platinum is a very strong, dense precious metal with a white color. Platinum jewelry is usually 90%-95% pure, is very sturdy, and holds stones well. Platinum is related to iridium. Iridium and platinum are frequently alloyed together, since the Irridium increases the workability of the platinum.
Platinum hammered strip was set into a gold and silver box from Thebes, fashioned in the Seventh Century B.C. and some flecks appear in gold Egyptian pieces from 1400 B.C. Some 2,000 years ago, South American Indians were the first to work and mine platinum, creating nose rings and jewelry items with a smelting process that would remain secret until the late 1700s when Platinum was rediscovered in Russia.. Platinum was introduced in jewelry settings by Louis Cartier in the 1890s . Platinum is more rare on Earth than gold and silver. Platinum jewelry is often alloyed with other members of the platinum family, iridium or ruthenium, to add strength. Rhodium, another platinum member, is the most reflective or bright of the metals and is used to coat or plate gold and platinum jewelry.
Platinum is abbreviated Pt. and Plat. More rare, more durable, and heavier than the other precious metals, (Platinum is 60% heavier than gold), at 90 or 95% pure, platinum is also more pure than 14-karat gold, which is 58.5% gold. With more precious metal contained in a piece of platinum jewelry than in an equal piece of gold, platinum will give years more wear, while maintaining it’s original beauty. Over time, platinum will develop a natural patina, giving your piece of platinum it’s own special look. Unlike white gold, platinum jewelry remains white throughout the life of the piece, and will not tarnish. Therefore, little or no maintenance is required with your platinum jewelry. The durability of platinum makes it an excellent choice for those with an active lifestyle, or for your everyday jewelry, such as your wedding band and engagement ring. Platinum also differs from gold and silver in that when its surface is etched for engraving it actually separates, so there is no loss of the precious metal. It is this reaction that causes engraved finishes on platinum to retain their beauty for years, without fading.
RHODIUM is a metal that is part of the platinum family. Silver, gold, and even base metals were often Rhodium plated during the 30's and 40's to give them the whiter, shinier look associated with platinum. Estate jewelry from this period can be re-plated in order to restore the original luster.
IRRIDIUM: A metal and member of the platinum family, it is often alloyed with platinum to improve workability, (and conserve platinum) thus you will find pieces marked something like "90% Plat. 10% Irrid" to indicate that the alloy is 90 % platinum and 10% irridium. This practice was particularly commonplace during war time.
SILVER: Silver is a fine, silver-white metal often used in jewelry. Pure silver has a hardness of 2.5. Other metals are alloyed with silver (usually copper) for silver used in jewelry making. Silver tarnishes after exposure to air (a thin layer of silver-oxide forms on the surface). Silver often occurs near copper lodes.
STERLING is silver with a fineness of 925, that is, sterling is 925 parts per thousand (or 92.5%) silver and 7.5 parts per thousand (or 7.5%) copper (the copper increases the silver's hardness). Sterling is quite malleable. SS is an abbreviation for sterling silver.
GERMAN SILVER (also known as nickel silver) is an alloy consisting
of mostly copper (roughly 60 percent), and approximately 20 percent nickel,
about 20 percent zinc, and sometimes about 5 percent tin (then the alloy is
called alpaca). There is no silver at all in German silver. This alloy was invented
around 1860 in Germany as a silver substitute and as such, was often used for
beautifully detailed mesh evening purses.
Estate jewelry is readily divided into several historical periods.
However, unless a piece is engraved with a specific date, a patent number, or a hallmark, attempting to arrive at a specific date is futile. Historians love to have beginning and ending dates, but mass culture and taste have resulted in jewelry styles that overlap so-called jewelry periods.
Estate jewelry typically reflect styles from a historical period more than any specific time or date.
For example, historians agree that the Victorian period ended with the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, but Victorian-style jewelry was made well into the 20th Century.
Nevertheless old jewelry holds clues, if not to specific dates, at least to an identification of a general collectible period. Each such period has jewelry styles that are easy to identify.
GEORGIAN - 1715-1830's The Georgian period references a style of jewelry created during the reigns of King George III and IV . Two primary characteristics of jewelry from this period are the way the stones are mounted, and that the backs are enclosed by metal. Georgian Period jewelry is extremely rare.
VICTORIAN: 1837 - early 1900's. The Victorian era began in 1837 when young Victoria ascended the throne of England, and ended 64 years later when Queen Victoria died in 1901. The intervening era, which spanned the last two thirds of the 19th century, ushered in periods of romance, tragedy, and prosperity. The jewels of the Victorian era reflected the country's ever-changing fortunes. When described, the Victorian era is generally categorized into three periods: the Romantic (or Early Victorian) Period (1837-1860), the Grand (or mid-Victorian) Period (1860-1888) and the Late Victorian Period (1888-1901).
The Victorian period was preceded by the Georgian period, and succeeded
by the Edwardian period after Victoria died in 1901, and her son Edward became
king. The majority of Estate Jewelry draw from the Victorian period, mainly
because it lasted so long and encompasses a number of distinctive design trends.
Recurrent themes of nature, history, sentimentality, and symbolism are reflected in the jewelry of the Victorian period. Victorians, while highly reserved, physically undemonstrative, and extremely concerned with "proper behaviour", didn't hesitate to exhibit their personal sentiments in the form of jewelry. Hair jewelry, mourning jewelry, name and message jewelry, hands jewelry, and love brooches (knots) were worn, as well as the anchor of hope, and the heart of charity motifs.
Nature was a source of inspiration for Victorians, in the form of flowers, lovebirds, animals, and insects. Good luck symbols are found in clovers, horseshoes, and other symbols like hand, snakes, love knots, and crosses.
During the Victorian period, a revival of interest in older periods found its way back into jewelry, including that of the Etruscan (granulation of beads), Renaissance, and Scottish. Jewelry such as cameos and mosaics were often purchased during trips to Italy. Identifiable motifs include stars, crescents, slides, and tassels on pins, fleur d'lis, stick pins, bracelets, lockets and pocket watches.
Gem materials used include diamonds, seed pearls, turquoise, agate, garnets, opals, moonstones, coral and blue zircon set in yellow gold and gold-filled jewelry. Jewelry methods included black enameling called "taille d'epargne", use of man-made stones, and pierced earrings.
ART NOUVEAU (1895-1915) also known as "ARTS & CRAFTS". At the end of the Victorian period, a number of craftspeople broke away from the common styles and motifs, in part in response to industrialization and mass production. Much of the jewelry made by these Art Nouveau artists drew on themes involving nature and women. The most important characteristic of this kind of jewelry was the flowing nature. As Walter Crance suggested "the line is all important." The freeflowing lines found in Art Nouveau jewelry suggest the movement, passion, vitality and youthful vigor in the new ideas of the Turn of the Century. Equally important was the portrayal of women. Art Nouveau was popular until the end of World War I. Art Nouveau pieces are characterized by curves and naturalistic designs. Gone were the static Greek and Roman images found in Victorian cameos. They were replaced by a women with flowing hair, sensual and passionate -- the reckless, untamed hair suggesting the emancipation of women. Louis Comfort Tiffany made archetypal Art Nouveau pieces. At the heart of the Art Nouveau movement were the natural motifs, including flowers in decay or just budding, which symbolized the energy and dynamic forces of nature. This natural motif also included birds, like peacocks, animals and snakes. An important jewelry manufacturing method in this period was the use of colored enamel, including specific enamel techniques like "plique a jour". Materials included non-precious stones like opal, moonstone, amber, pearls and horn. The design movement that began in the late 1800s as a rebellion against the mass-produced, machine made designs of questionable aesthetic value common in the late Victorian era. The designers felt that their work should look handmade, and therefore they often left hammer marks on the piece. Although pieces were made of gold, silver was more commonly used to emphasize the craftmanship of the piece, rather than the intrinsic value of the components. Stones used were commonly less expensive cabochon stones such as moonstone, mother or pearl, agates or amber. Enamel work was also used.
Belle Epoque is another name for the period during the reign of Edward VII. The Belle Epoque means "Beautiful Time" in French. Edward VII of England reigned from 1901-1910. By the time Queen Victoria's son finally ascended to the throne, Edward and his wife, Alexandra, had already had an influence on jewelry. This period was characterized by delicate filigree in white gold and platinum, with diamonds and pearls predominating, and colored stones used less frequently, producing a light, monochromatic look. Delicate bows, swags, and garland effects were used in necklaces and brooches. Both dog collars (large, ornate chokers), and long fringed necklaces often of seed pearls, were also "in", popularized by the graceful, long-necked Queen Alexandra.
This period witnessed the rise of an incredibly wealthy class who wore fine jewelry. It was distinctly different from Victorian. The color of gold changed from yellow to white, and platinum was introduced. Craftsmen designed filigree rings, pins, and bracelets -- with a lacy, intricate look. Edwardian motifs included garlands, bows, tassels, bar pins, tiaras, lavalieres, sautoirs and multiple strands of seed pearls in choker length called dog collars.
Many of the bar pins (worn horizontally) have a two-tone look -- with a white metal top and yellow gold bottom. Monochromatic looks were popular, so diamonds and pearls were used together set in white metal. Other gem materials included amethyst and peridot, the favorite stones of Alexandra and Edward, as well as some sapphire.
Calibrated sapphires, both natural and synthetic, were introduced during this time.
ART DECO (1920-1935) The period between World Wars witnessed new interest in modernizing jewelry. Whereas the Edwardians drew from the past for inspiration, the designers of the Art Deco period welcomed the clean lines of the machine age.
This style originated in Paris, France. Art Deco pieces are characterized by geometric lines and angles, with very few curves. Forms inspired from nature or the abstract were in marked contrast to both Edwardian and Art Nouveau jewelry. This art movement eventually became bolder and evolved into Art Moderne.
Motifs of the Art Deco period included the dress clip, with the double clip patented by Cartier in 1927, screwback and clip back earrings, circle pins, diamond and platinum link-style bracelets, sport jewelry, Egyptian jewelry (King Tut's tomb was discovered in 1922) and sautiers.
Unlike the Edwardians, this period's artists were seeking chromatic contrasts; thus, materials included diamonds matched with primary color gemstones like sapphires, emeralds, and rubies. Marcasite, glass beads, and even plastics appear in this period. New diamond cuts were introduced to accentuate the geometric taste, including emerald cut, triangle cut, trapeze cut and marquis cut.
RETRO (1935-1955) A recent designation for the period (primarily in
the forties) when large scale, stylized geometric forms were the rage. Even
before World War II, jewelry was changing. The most obvious change was in the
color of gold. After nearly 50 years, tastes were moving from white gold back
to yellow gold. Government restrictions on metals during the war only reinforced
both the change and the introduction of rose gold in jewelry. Rose (pink) gold,
set with colored stones, sometimes in floral forms was common. The Retro look
was an infusion of old and new -- utilizing the curves of Art Nouveau with the
clean simple look of Art Deco, but in a scale not seen before. Big is beautiful
when it comes to describing jewelry of the Retro period. Gem material included
large aquamarines, citrines and amethysts. Because of the war, synthetic rubies
are often found in rose gold jewelry. Virtually identical to naturally grown
rubies, synthetic rubies must be distinguished from natural by trained gemologists.
Jewelry motifs during this period include bows, ribbons, flowers, birds, patriotic
themes, clips, large floral sprays and suites of jewelry. View an example
of a 22k gold ring from the RETRO era.. The ring, from an estate in New Orleans,
Louisiana, is set with a gemstone in excess of 50 carats.
SIGNED JEWELRY: For the last 100 years the finest jewelers in the world have signed most of their jewelry. A piece that is signed by a famous jeweler is more valuable than one that is not signed. Some of the jewelers who fall into this category are Cartier, Oscar Heyman and Brothers, Asprey, Marsh's, George Jensen, Chaumet, La Cloche, Fred, Raymend Yard, Schlumberger,Van Cleef and Arpels, Faberege, Tiffany and Co., David Webb, Lalique, Fouquet, Boucheron, Charlton, Buccellati, and Drecier.
IMPORTANT JEWELRY: The heady category known as Important Jewelry
will typically have four characteristics:
Intrinsic value - Jewelry which has a single large diamond, emerald, ruby or sapphire. A piece that contains perhaps 10 carats or more of smaller diamonds.
Rarity - Unique pieces of master craftsmanship. Pieces that contain large pearls or rare colored stones such as Alexandrite.
Maker - Pieces which may be signed by a famous jeweler.
Provenance - A piece which has belonged to a famous person.
JEWELRY CARE: Did you know?
Gems and gem quality items, improperly stored, can rub against each other and permanently damage your beautiful gemstones.
Do not wear gold jewelry while in a swimming pool or hot tub or using bleach. Chlorine attacks the alloys in gold.
Always wear gloves if you don't remove your rings while gardening or cleaning house.
You can remove tarnish from gold jewelry with a simple liquid jewelry cleaner available from your grocery store, or by using a liquid dishwashing soap like Palmolive or Dawn and water mixed with a few drops of ammonia. Carefully brush with a soft bristle brush. An old toothbrush can also be used.
Liquid Silver cleaner can damage the desirable patina on silver jewelry. Use instead a treated silver cloth, available from most professional jewelers to gently clean silver jewelry.
Don't have time to do a thorough ring cleaning? While wearing your rings, wash your hands in warm water with a squirt of a grease cutting dishwashing soap such as Palmolive or Dawn.
Never apply hairspray or perfume while wearing pearls. Try not to allow your pearls to touch areas of skin where you have just applied perfume.
Tanzanites are very soft gemstones and are not recommended for use in rings. No kidding. Earrings and necklaces are fine.
Kunzite (pink), Prasiolite (aka green amethyst) and several other beautiful colors of semi-precious gemstones will fade very badly if exposed to sunlight, thus they are only recommended for evening wear.
Learn: HOW TO CARE FOR YOUR FINE JEWELRY
If you're here shopping for yourself, you already know what type of jewelry appeals to you.
If you're a man however, and you're shopping for a woman, you'll want to choose something you know she'll truly enjoy.
You were thinking of buying her a new vacuum,
or a brand new set of snow tires? Trust us. You'll be
a lot happier with her response to a gift of jewelry.
You have no clue how to select something she'll like?
It's easy. All you need to do is take a good hard look at the style and color of the jewelry she already owns and wears.
With nothing more than a glance, you'll be able to determine whether she prefers to wear white gold and platinum, or note whether she's partial to yellow gold, or the rich golden hue of 22k gold, or even if she prefers the delicate pink of rose gold.
You'll be able to tell whether she likes delicate pieces, or would go wild over a piece that's loaded with flash and sparkle.
You'll know if she's crazy about diamonds or emeralds, rubies, or sapphires, or if she's partial to pearls.
Here's a good rule of thumb; Gold and platinum rings and earrings and bracelets and longer necklaces of all types are considered fashion accessories, so a woman can never have too many. Any of those are always a good choice.
Diamonds are a girls best friend, so buying sparkling jewelry, (any of the diamond and precious gem necklaces, rings, earrings, and bracelets) will always be a safe choice. Do plan to get dressed up and take her out to dinner with friends however, so she can show off your thoughtful gift. That will make your present even more memorable for her.
Choosing an everyday necklace can be a little tricker. If she wears a short yellow or white gold necklace that she never takes off, for example, you might be better off choosing a different piece of jewelry. You don't want to make her feel obligated to switch from wearing a short everyday necklace she clearly enjoys, to wearing a new necklace, simply to avoid hurting your feelings.
If her existing everyday necklace is just a chain however, she's likely to be thrilled with a diamond or other gemstone pendant that could enhance it, and which could just as easily be worn on a longer chain, if she prefers. Some antique pins and brooches have the potential to make stunning pendants. Ask us. We can arrange to have this done for you.
If you're considering the purchase of an antique wedding or engagement ring, that's a terrific choice, and it typically makes for a far better buy. But it's also a whole different matter, trying to single-handedly choose the exact piece she'll enjoy wearing every single day for a lifetime. A good way to handle this is simply to point her to this site, invite her to browse, ask her to tell you which styles she finds most appealing, and then you can make the choice together.
When it comes to buying jewelry for a surprise gift however, all you need to do is look, and you'll begin to get a feel for the type of jewelry she'll be thrilled with.
We've just made shopping for jewelry on the Treasure Coast really simple for you! Choosing gifts for birthdays and anniversaries and holidays ought to be a cinch for you, from here on out. You can never go wrong giving her fine jewelry, you know.
We guarantee the value of your purchase, we'll accompany your purchase with an insurance appraisal, and we've told you how to thoughtfully select a piece of jewelry which will be cherished for years and years to come!. We'll even let you place your selection on Layaway, in some cases for up to 6 full months!
If we may help you further during your selection process, please don't
hesitate to contact
In the selection of jewelry displayed on this site we first rate the "Wow" factor. It must be something each of us would enjoy owning and wearing ourselves, jewelry so attractive people simply can't help but comment on it. And just like you, when we select jewelry, we even take into consideration the style and color of clothing the jewelry could be worn with. After all, the more outfits a particular piece of fine jewelry compliments, the greater its overall appeal.
We next examine the intrinsic value of the piece. For example, we evaluate the quality of the gemstones, and determine whether the piece is solid gold or platinum, vs. gold plating, or gold filled. Gemstones are evaluated to identify natural vs. man made stones, and precious color vs. semi precious color.
We'll next evaluate the condition of the piece: Are the stones chipped? Is the jewelry damaged or are parts missing?
We look at construction, weight, finish, and
design, as well as the history of the piece.
Is an older estate piece verifiably identifiable as being from a specific period?
We feature jewelry which will make your shopping
experience here a pleasure.
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